If the workers are strong, the manufacturing is strong, and if the manufacturing is strong, the country is strong! 我国目前总就业人口为7.76亿人，其中技术工人有1.65亿，约占21%，而其中高技能人才4700万人，仅占就业人口的6%。 Data show that China currently has 776 million employed people, of which 165 million are skilled workers, accounting for about 21%, and 47 million of them are high-skilled personnel, accounting for only 6% of the employed population.
"Made in China 2025" needs more skilled and strong technical workers to support and call for more great craftsmen. But the reality is that in many industrial enterprises, ordinary workers are in a bad situation, with low income, low treatment, low honor, and low existence. The "four lows" pain point has made young people unwilling to choose workers' occupations, and the phenomenon of job departure and technical inheritance faults is serious.
Who is going to be a worker today? This is the question of the workers, but also the development of the country's manufacturing industry.
Manufacturing workers used to be the envy of the people.
However, since the late 1990s, many people in the society have gradually lost interest in being a worker, and now many factories are having difficulty in recruiting workers. Some graduates from vocational colleges, colleges, and junior colleges prefer to drift in society rather than work in steel mills. Some college and secondary school students even entered the steel mills as workers and were unwilling to let their relatives and friends know that they worked in the steel mills.
Why are they unwilling to be workers?
China has a wide contingent of skilled workers, and non-high-skilled workers account for most of the skilled workers. With the development of our country's economy, industry, especially the manufacturing industry, increasingly needs a team of highly qualified technical personnel.
However, half-monthly reporters interviewed in some provinces and found that problems such as tedious work and poor living conditions have led many people, especially young people, to choose improper workers.
今年20多岁的孙文静在深圳一家工厂上班，工厂、食堂、宿舍“三点一线”的生活让她觉得非常无趣。 "Am I going to spend my whole life in this three-point and one-line life?" Sun Wenjing, who is in her 20s this year, works in a factory in Shenzhen. The "three-point and one-line" life in the factory, cafeteria, and dormitory makes her feel very boring. . 孙文静说，在厂里从一线普工做到管理层很难，晋升需要相关的学历和人脉关系。 "It's like this in the factory. Working is nothing more than mixing time, saving a little money, and then going out to do a small business." Sun Wenjing said that it is difficult to achieve management from a front-line general worker in the factory. Promotion requires relevant education and connections. .
Xia Peng, a junior student at Nanjing Vocational College of Science and Technology, said that he had an internship in the production workshop of a foreign-funded chemical company last year. He had expected to increase his experience during the internship. But when he arrived at the factory, he found that the factory's production line is highly automated and works daily I just watched the machines running on the production line, and occasionally did some manual work of moving. Moreover, many core technologies come from abroad and are mastered by the core team.
夏鹏的专业是机电一体化技术，在工厂里用不到太多的专业知识，也接触不到核心技术，就算正式入职后，职位晋升的前景也不明朗。 "The factory needs labor, not skilled workers." Xia Peng's specialty is mechatronics technology. He doesn't use too much expertise in the factory, and can't access the core technology. Even after he officially joins the job, the prospect of job promotion It's not clear. Looking at the classmates around him who are selling in the company or starting their own businesses, Xia Peng feels that working in the factory has low social value and often has to work day and night shifts. In the end, Xia Peng chose to leave after the internship.
Liu Jinbing, a teacher of Changsha Electronic Industry School, said that most of the students are now born in the post-90s generation. The family situation is generally better than before, and there is a pursuit of life. Some companies do not have greening, air conditioning, poor accommodation conditions, and no water heaters. Satisfied, changing jobs constantly.
Half-monthly reporters interviewed in many provinces and cities found that the income level of skilled workers in China is relatively low at this stage. In general enterprises, the wages of workers are mostly between 2,000 yuan and 3,000 yuan. Old workers who have worked in the enterprise for more than 20 to 30 years have wages of more than 4,000 yuan to 5,000 yuan. At such a wage level, today's housing costs, prices, education, medical care and other high costs, life is already stretched, let alone a decent life.
从业20多年的中车齐齐哈尔车辆有限公司货车分厂电焊工张敬华告诉半月谈记者， “现在我们国家高技能人才紧缺，且老龄化趋势严重，呈现断层现象。在东北老工业基地甚至存在老一辈高技能人才想要把绝技诀窍传承下去，却找不到好徒弟的现象。” "The low social status and treatment of workers has led young people to choose other means of livelihood instead of learning technology." Zhang Jinghua, an electric welder at the truck branch of CRRC Qiqihar Vehicle Co., Ltd., who has been in the business for more than 20 years, told Banyue Tan reporters, There is a shortage of skilled talents, and the aging trend is serious, showing a fault phenomenon. In the old industrial bases in Northeast China, even the older generation of high-skilled talents want to pass on their know-how, but they cannot find good apprentices. "
Interviewed experts said that China's current education system places emphasis on education and skills, and enterprises focus on management and skills. Some enterprises only consider the immediate benefits, and their investment in employee education and skills training is not enough, resulting in a breakdown of China's technical talent reserve.
There are also some companies that have insufficient executive power for the government to value high-skilled talents to effectively resolve substantive issues.
南京科技职业学院电气与控制学院办公室主任王蓉说，随着“双创”逐渐成为一种新的校园文化，学生的就业渠道更加丰富，在选择职业时更加注重个人价值的实现，更喜欢从事有挑战性的工作。 "Now the post-90s and even post-00s college students have more diversified career choices." Said Wang Rong, director of the Office of the School of Electrical and Control, Nanjing Vocational College of Science and Technology. With the "double innovation" gradually becoming a new campus culture, students' employment channels More abundant, pay more attention to the realization of personal value when choosing a career, prefer to engage in challenging work.
At the same time, due to the increase in the level of automation, the front-line positions in many factories do not have very high requirements for the technical capabilities of workers. For college students, professional expertise cannot be brought into play, and factories are reluctant to raise salary levels for these positions, so staff turnover has become a norm.
Wang Rong keeps in touch with many graduated students. After leaving the factory, many students choose to engage in sales and other work in enterprises, and many choose to join the army or continue their studies. "These employment methods give students more self-esteem than in the factory."
Narrow development space
The training period for senior skilled workers is long, and the existing workers' rising mechanism is not sound enough, which has restricted the enthusiasm of some young workers.
大庆油田第四采油厂第一油矿北三采油队采油地质工孙雨飞说， “一个初级工成长为高级技师最快需要12年时间，而大学生毕业进入企业两三年，还不具备相应的工作能力，却能晋级工程师。” "Now high-skilled talents are older and are basically over 40." said Sun Yufei, a geological engineer for the North Third Oil Recovery Team at the No. 1 Oil Mine in Daqing Oilfield . "It takes at least 12 years for a junior worker to become a senior technician. College students who have entered the enterprise two or three years after graduation have not yet possessed the corresponding working abilities, but are able to be promoted to engineers. "
Sun Yufei gave an example: "Last year, a young man in the company won the third place in the national skill competition, but can return to the unit or a junior worker, which weakens the enthusiasm of the young people."
The relevant person in charge of the Human Resources Department of Harbin Electric Group said that workers' occupations have problems such as low social status, relatively single development direction, high labor intensity, and difficult working environment, and many young people think that the working environment and safety of workers are not very high. Protection.
This affects young people's career choices and lacks reserve power. At present, the age structure of some front-line employees in some affiliated companies is relatively large, and the production structure of many production positions is seriously irrational. The retirement age is concentrated, and the risk of skills transfer and technical staff outages is becoming increasingly serious.
With the development of the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, the demand for high-skilled talents by various types of enterprises, especially industrial enterprises, has increased dramatically. From the perspective of market supply and demand, in the talent market in recent years, the employment ratio of skilled workers has remained above 1.5, and the employment ratio of senior technicians has even reached a level of more than 2. The contradiction between supply and demand is very prominent.
“The development path of“ Made in China with quality is just a good start, and there is still a long way to go. ”During the two sessions this year, Tian Haorong, a deputy to the National People ’s Congress, called for, “ To build a first-class technical worker team, more workers need to calm down Come, do your own job well, use your ingenuity in ordinary jobs, take the technical work to the extreme, and become a competent craftsman. "