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Minister of Industry and Information Technology: Do n’t hesitate. If you look at the ranking of global scientific and technological strength, you know how far China is still.

来源:科技日报 编辑 浏览次数:140 Release date: 2019-12-18 Source: Editor of Science and Technology Daily Views: 140
  Some time ago, Liu Yadong, the editor-in-chief of the Science and Technology Daily, said in a speech that the public needs to know more, and in particular, we should know that "My Country" is not "powerful" and is even subject to others!

In his speech, he pointed out sternly:

There are some people in China who say "the four new inventions" for a while, "overall catch-up" and "subject transcendence" for a while, " China's current economic strength, scientific and technological strength, and comprehensive national strength have surpassed the United States and become the world's first. It's fair to say that there are zeros and zeros. Obviously they built a house on someone else's foundation, not to say that they have full and permanent property rights . If only morale is encouraged, the trouble is that the people who issued these arguments flickered the public and flickered themselves, which became a problem.

他指出, 在全球制造业的四级梯队中,中国处于第三梯队,而且这种格局在短时间内难有根本性改变 Coincidentally, Miao Wei , Minister of Industry and Information Technology, also issued a similar view. He pointed out that China is in the third echelon among the four echelons of global manufacturing, and this pattern is unlikely to change fundamentally in a short period of time .

西方工业,也没有衰退到依赖中国 。我们的制造业还没有升级,制造业者已开始撤离。”在向服务业转型的口号声中,工业和信息化部部长苗圩按捺不住,出来说了真话。 "Made in China is not as powerful as we think. Western industry has not declined to rely on China . Our manufacturing has not yet been upgraded, and manufacturers have begun to withdraw." In the slogan of transition to the service industry, industry and information technology Minister Miao Wei couldn't hold back and came out to tell the truth.
Miao Wei pointed out that it will take at least another 30 years to become a manufacturing power.

Minister of Industry and Information Technology
As a central member in charge of manufacturing, Miao Wei's views basically represent national perception.
Miao Wei said that the global manufacturing industry has basically formed a four-tier development pattern:
The first echelon is a global science and technology innovation center led by the United States;
The second echelon is in the field of high-end manufacturing, including the European Union and Japan;
The third echelon is the field of low-end and mid-end manufacturing, mainly some emerging countries, including China;
The fourth echelon is mainly resource exporting countries, including OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), Africa, Latin America and other countries.
In today's growing downward pressure on the Chinese economy, many people cheer for the service industry surpassing manufacturing to become the second largest industry in the national economy, and even think that China can go beyond the stage of industrialization and directly enter the service-led economic structure. In this regard, Miao Wei believes that, no matter from the historical experience or the actual situation, this is a point of departure from reality .
Looking at the ranking of global scientific and technological strength, China is still far behind.
First place: United States
To date, American universities have gathered more than 70% of Nobel Prize winners worldwide.
Among the top 20 universities in the world, in terms of scientific contribution, the United States accounts for 17 (about 600 Tsinghua University). From MIT to California Institute of Technology, it has trained the best engineers and top engineers in the world. Scientist.
The world's top ten technology companies, the United States occupies eight! Intel provides chips to the world, and Microsoft and Oracle dominate the software market (from Baidu to Tencent to Chinese government departments, using database software and technology provided by Oracle).
The United States has the world's top laboratories, in the field of military industry, in the field of aerospace, in the field of medical technology, in the field of information science ... The United States ranks first in the world with unparalleled strength and overwhelming technological advantages.

If the United States said tomorrow that they had developed this flying saucer, no one would be surprised.
Second place: UK
Rollo engine. Such an engine affects many fields of materials, machinery and power. China's big airplane dream has just set off.
What we see right now is full of Japanese and German equipment, but few people care about it. Most of the core parts of these machines and equipment use chips designed by British ARM company.
The number of Nobel Prize winners in the UK is second only to that of the United States, ranking second in the world. Of the top 200 universities in the world, the United States occupies 75 and the United Kingdom occupies 32, far exceeding other countries.
Although the UK has declined in industrial scale, it still has the world's top aero engine company, Luo Luo, which is in the world-class in steel, pharmaceuticals, biological breeding, aerospace, machinery, microelectronics, military industry, and environmental science. Column.
But because the UK has the best universities in the world (after the United States), the UK still maintains the world's second science and technology and has made outstanding contributions to world technology (such as the world's first cloned sheep).
Third place: Japan
Among the US Patent Office's patent applications, Japan is the second largest country after the United States itself, which has been regarded as an important indicator of Japan's innovation ability. In terms of global university rankings and contributions to world technology, Japanese universities are second only to the United States and Britain.
Japan has many large groups and companies, such as Toshiba, Mitsubishi, etc. These companies have strong scientific research capabilities. Japan's attention to detail allows their products to have a better user experience in the market, thereby occupying the market. It also gives them more R & D funding. From the beginning of imitation to the subsequent technological innovation, the rise of Japan has become a myth in Asia.
Japan ranks well in 20 key technology fields. Japan has huge scientific research strength in materials science, cutting-edge robots, and so on.

A giant OLED globe from the Japan Science Museum of the Future. There may be some problems with the Japanese economy, but it has never stopped the pace of technological upgrading.
Fourth place: France
There are quite a few well-known universities in Paris. French universities are generally divided into higher business schools and engineering colleges, which is a typical model of elite education.
Unlike the United Kingdom, France maintains its technological advantage through high national investment. France has more than 50 Nobel Prize winners and more than 10 Fields Prize winners. In 20 key scientific research fields, France is at the forefront of the world. Although romantic French seem to be more lazy than Japanese and Germans, they are more innovative and adventurous in scientific research.
France has obvious advantages in aerospace, energy, materials science, and space technology!

World's first commercial driverless car made in France

Fifth place: Germany
When it comes to Germany, everyone will think of German machine tools, German precision machinery, German meticulous spirit! So far, more than 70 Germans have won Nobel prizes, more than France and Japan.
I have to say that, unlike most imagination, scientific research is actually a kind of manual work (although the spirit of innovation is important), a kind of boring and tedious manual work. An experiment may be repeated a thousand times, and it may take several days and nights to find an error, even if all you think is correct, but as long as a small error is enough to stop the pace of scientific research. German quality has an advantage in this regard. Like France, German universities are ranked by major, not by school. Each school has its own specialty.
German technology comes from German education and more from German manufacturing.

Industry 4.0, China's dream, Germany's reality
Sixth place: Finland
In addition to Nokia, Finland, a small country with more than 5 million people, ranks among the top 10 in 20 key technology fields. For example, computer science, everyone knows windows, but computer professionals must know linux! Finland's education and technology have always been at the forefront of the world.
A report by the US Department of Defense states that Finland is the country that has transferred the most high-tech technologies to China in the world, and public information from China says that Finland is China's second largest technology transferor in Northern Europe.

Silicon Valley, Finland: Innopolis Science Park
Seventh place: Israel
People of Jewish descent have won many Nobel Prizes, but many people may not know that Israel is not only militaryly powerful, but also scientifically and technically powerful, although many of their military equipment comes from the United States. But they also helped American researchers to research and improve weapons and equipment.
Israel has a very high education level. 24% of the working population has a graduate degree or higher, ranking first in the world.
Over the past ten years, Israeli scientists have made outstanding achievements in many fields and made outstanding contributions to the development of science and technology in the world, especially in electronics and chemistry.
Many high-tech companies in the United States have set up R & D centers in Israel to take advantage of the wisdom and wisdom of Israelis (unlike China, Israelis participate in and undertake key scientific research and product development)!
Israel lacks resources, and the biggest resource is their minds.
Eighth place: Sweden
The Nobel Prize judges are Swedish and can be recognized by the world, which proves that Sweden has first-class scientists and the ability to evaluate the world's top scientific research (if you do not have this level, no one will recognize Your assessment). Sweden has only about 9 million people, but 38% of the working population is employed in high-tech companies (such as Ericsson), which ranks first in the world! The Swedes are also one of the countries that love reading most in the world, and their scientific quality is the highest in the world.
The Chinese imagine that Sweden is a high-welfare country, and people live very leisurely. However, Sweden implements a very strict competitive education model. All courses are divided into dozens of levels from easy to difficult, not by grade and class distinguish.
Of the 20 key science and technology fields, 14 are in the top 10 and 19 are in the top 20.

Kista Tech City
Ninth place: Italy
Italians can design the best clothing and lead the fashion trend ... This seems to have nothing to do with natural science and technology, but it reflects the Italians' innovative ability. In fact, Italy also has Agustan-Victoran helicopters, supercars such as Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini, and has world-class superb car manufacturing technology.
Italy's innovation ability in luxury goods is even far superior to Europe and the United States, and the highest-end luxury goods often represent the application of the highest technology.
Of course, there are many problems in Italy, which can easily obscure people's evaluation of Italian science and technology.

Italy's machinery and equipment industry ranks fourth in the world and second in Europe
Tenth place: Canada
Of the 20 key science and technology fields, 16 are in the top 20 and 4 are in the top 5 in the world.

Robotic arms and robotic workstations made by MDA Canada for the International Space Station
The 11th to 19th places are: Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, Australia, Norway, Belgium, Russia, Singapore, and South Korea.
It is worth mentioning that Singapore. It is not just the same financial and trade center as Hong Kong. In fact, Singapore spends more on technology and industry than on service.
Nanyang Technological University is one of the top 30 universities in the world. Singapore's manufacturing industry has four pillar industries: petrochemicals, electronics, machinery manufacturing, and biomedicine. The world's third largest oil refining center and petrochemical center. Singapore is the world's largest manufacturer of jack-up oil rigs. From the perspective of layout, Singapore has far more vision than Hong Kong.
In 5 levels of technological prowess
First level, core, United States.
Second level, developed, UK, Germany, France, Japan.
The third level, enter the hall, Finland, Russia, Italy, Israel, Canada, Australia, Norway, South Korea, Czech and other medium developed countries.
Fourth level, at the gate, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and other developing countries.
The fifth level is backward, and the remaining poor developing countries are included here.
How long does China have to go in manufacturing? 30 years is not really long.

Further reading:
11-20 in scientific and technological strength
Eleventh place: Netherlands
 
Twelfth place: Denmark
 
Thirteenth place: Switzerland
 
Fourteenth: Australia
 
Fifteenth place: Norway
 
Sixteenth place: Belgium
 
Seventeenth place: Russia
 
Eighteenth Place: Singapore
 
Nineteenth: South Korea
 
20th place: Taiwan, China

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